Wrist fractures are the most common of all fractures. They usually result from a fall on an outstretched hand. In young adults they may result from higher energy trauma, such as a bicycle accident. In older patients wrist fractures may result from a lower energy mechanism due to poor bone quality or osteoporosis. All distal radius fractures need to be treated on a case-by-case basis. Treatment may include a moulded cast, fixation with wires or a small plate and screws.
Fractures of the proximal femur are also called hip fractures. Although hip fractures can occur in all age groups that are most common in elderly patients with poor bone quality. Depending on the location of the fracture different operations needed. Displaced fractures of the neck of the femur are generally treated with hip replacement whereas fractures that occur lower down the femur can be fixed with a plate and screws or a nail which is a prosthesis that is inserted inside the bone of the femur.
Ankle fractures are common and treatment dependents on whether stability of the ankle joint is affected. Strains and un-displaced fractures can generally be treated in a walking boot whereas surgery is recommended for fracture that are displaced or affect ankle joint stability.
Tibial fractures are most often caused by significant trauma. The treatment of tibial fractures depends on the type and location of the fracture. Tibial shaft fractures a generally treated with intermedullary fixation and fractures at either end of the tibia are most often treated with plates and screws.
Treatment of femoral fractures dependents of the location of the fracture. Fractures of the proximal femur or hip fractures can be treated with fixation of replacement. Fractures of the shaft are generally treated with intermedullary nails which are rods that are inserted inside the bone. Distal fracture may be treated with a plate.
Treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus or shoulder, depends on the type of fracture, patient age and comorbidities. Many fractures may be treated non-operatively with excellent results however some are best treated with fixation or replacement of the head of the humerus.
Humeral shaft fractures are most often treated non-operatively with a brace however in some circumstances surgical fixation may be recommended.
Periprosthetic fractures require special treatment as they occur around a prosthetic joint. In some situations the fracture may be able to be fixed. In other cases, replacement of the loose prosthesis may be required.
Fractures in children are common because of the involvement in sport and physical activities. Children have different types of fracture than adults due to their growing bones and usually require different care. Fractures involving the growth plate can sometimes lead to problems with growth of that bone later on.